Category Archives: Holistic and Health Articles

Aromatherapy with Sustainable Resources

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By Eliana Paredes

Cancer and Vitamin C – timely information

by Mauris Emeka

Dr. Linus Pauling (1901-1994) won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1954.  During his career he and his associates discovered numerous health benefits of vitamin C.  Their research in the 1950s and 60s proved that unusually high doses of vitamin C can destroy cancer cells.  The only problem was that by taking vitamin C orally, even in high doses, less than 20 percent of it actually made its way to the bloodstream, which is where it needed to get.  When it is taken orally, any form of vitamin C first gets digested in the body’s digestive system, and that causes less than twenty percent of this vitamin to pass to the bloodstream and into the cells.  Dr. Pauling’s research shows that the body needs a lot more than twenty percent of the consumed vitamin C to shut down cancer cells. (For more details, see PubMed.com, and naturalnews.com, Dr. Joseph Mercola’s website).

Sometime around 2008 it became more widely known that well over twenty percent of vitamin C could be carried into the bloodstream by injecting it directly into a person’s veins. Intravenous (or IV) vitamin C bypasses the digestion process, and a significant percentage (sometimes as much as 80 percent) goes directly to the bloodstream, and on into the cells where it destroys cancer cells without hurting healthy cells. (See ‘IV Vitamin C Kills Cancer Cells’ by Dr. Julian Whitaker).

Intravenous (IV) vitamin C must be administered by physicians. Many naturopath physicians administer it, and to locate a physician in your area, go to acam.org (or call 800-532-3688).  Most medical offices charge roughly $100 to $125 per appointment to administer IV vitamin C. Therefore, numerous IV appointments can become costly.

Within the last 5 years some very helpful information has come to light regarding taking vitamin C orally to help overcome cancer.  It has been shown that something called Liposomal Encapsulated Vitamin C taken orally and in very large amounts actually bypasses the body’s digestive system and goes right to the bloodstream.  Some who are challenged with cancer have been known to get good results from taking as much as 25 to 50 grams or more of Liposomal Encapsulated Vitamin C several times a week.  As much as 80 percent of this type of vitamin C goes directly to the bloodstream and into the cells.  Some have stated that Liposomal Encapsulated Vitamin C may be even more effective than IV vitamin C for shutting down cancer cells.

Fortunately, Liposomal Encapsulated Vitamin C can be made at home in one’s kitchen.  The following 3 easily obtainable ingredients are needed in order to make it:  1.) non GMO vitamin C powder (also called ascorbic acid), 2.) non GMO lecithin, and 3.) distilled water. These ingredients must first be mixed together using a food blender, and then mixing them with a device called an Ultrasonic Cleaner.  Currently, not much is written about how to make this highly valuable and little-known vitamin C solution.  However, one can go to youtube.com and view videos that explain step by step how to make Liposomal Encapsulated Vitamin C.  A very helpful video can be accessed by going online to: youtube.com/watch?v=ynhRoyQYIQ8.

Why does a high amount of vitamin C destroy cancer cells? The publication called Science Daily notes that cancer cells do not have large amounts of the enzyme called catalase. On the otherhand, healthy cells have large amounts of catalase. Once in the bloodstream vitamin C breaks down easily, it interacts with metals in the body (especially iron) which then forms hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide damages the DNA of cancer cells.  Since cancer cells have little to no catalase enzymes they are unable to remove the resulting large amounts of hydrogen peroxide.  Therefore, large amounts of hydrogen peroxide cause the destruction of cancer cells.  (See organicconsumers.org/news/vitamin-c-may-be-potent).  But fortunately, healthy cells are not adversely affected by excessive amounts of hydrogen peroxide caused by high amounts of vitamin C, and it’s because healthy cells can control the additional amounts of hydrogen peroxide with their catalase enzymes. Therefore, very high amounts of vitamin C in the bloodstream destroys cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed.

It is also important to note that high amounts of this vitamin are known to strengthen the all-important immune system, plus, it reduces inflammation. (Reference, a vitamin C study done by scientists at the Riordan Clinic).

      British sailors died by the thousands from a disease called scurvy in the 18th and 19th centuries.  In 1783 a Scottish naval surgeon named James Land discovered that an unknown nutrient called vitamin C from citrus fruits prevented scurvy.  His findings were largely ignored for about 40 years.  But eventually everyone got the message that vitamin C was the answer to scurvy. (See the book’ Fear Cancer No More’, 2nd edition).  As for cancer, Vitamin C may not be the only answer but it is certainly a huge step in the right direction.

In closing, remember this: research has proven that bypassing the body’s digestive system and getting large amounts of Vitamin C directly into the bloodstream can be a significant step in halting the growth and spread of cancer cells.  Fortunately, vitamin C is known to be completely safe and non-toxic to the body in any amounts.

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Additional References: Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C. by Dr. Stephen Hickey & Dr. H. Roberts **  Primal Panacea, copyright 2011, by Dr. Thomas Levy **  The Complete Guide to Alternative Cancer Treatments  (A publication of the Alternative Cancer Research Institute) ** IV Vitamin C Kills Cancer Cells (Feb. 2014) by Dr. J. Whitaker ** Fear Cancer No More, copyright 2013, by M. Emeka **  Health Benefits of Liposomal Vitamin C by Dr. David Jockers ** naturalnews.com ** Research at the West Virginia School of Medicine, 1994, by Dr. Donald Lamm ** youtube.com/watch?v=SJ_MaFvIvVE .

Mauris Emeka lives in Port Orchard, WA.  He is a retired Army officer whose wife died from cancer, and he has since authored and published two books about cancer and nutrition.

His website is https://cancernomore.com  and email address is maurisemeka1@gmail.com.    

            

Benefits of Acupuncture for Women’s Health

by Healing Alternatives

  • Increases Fertility – Acupuncture regulates the Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immune system as it consistently evolves during the varying stages of a woman’s fertility.
  • Balances Hormones – Acupuncture releases endorphins into the body, which balances excess cortisol and in turn reduces inflammatory pain and stress.
  • Supports Bodily Processes – Acupuncture can improve the efficacy of contractions in labor and eliminate menstrual cramps by stimulating the nerves that innervate the uterus.
  • Relaxes the Mind – Opioid addiction in women and their newborn babies is an epidemic. These drugs treat psychosomatic pain, but drug tolerance and addiction make them very dangerous. Acupuncture supports the body’s natural feel-good hormones, the same released during exercise, sex, and birth. It also effectively treats pain by decreasing inflammation and activating the immune system.

For more information visit www.healingalternativesinc.com

Low Dose Antigen Therapy – For Allergy and Food Sensitivity

by Healing Alternatives

Have seasonal allergies and asthma got you down?  Are food sensitivities giving you gas, bloating and other uncomfortable digestive symptoms?  Feeling fatigued from all the nasal congestion?  Eczema or psoriasis making “shorts weather” unsightly?  Tired of trying to find a laundry detergent that doesn’t make you sneeze?

LDA is a revolution in allergy relief.   Safe and convenient, with no risk of anaphylaxis, LDA is cost effective and may help you get the long- term relief you’ve been looking for in an allergy treatment.

For more information visit www.healingalternativesinc.com

Cosmetic Acupuncture

by Healing Alternatives

In traditional Oriental Medicine, facial rejuvenation is achieved by inserting acupuncture needles at different points along designated channels to attain tonification or sedation effects.  Treatment benefits include elimination of some wrinkles and decrease in length and depth of others, decrease of facial edema, decrease of acne, improvement of facial muscle tone, improved skin texture with tighter pores, and decrease of sagging around the eyes, cheeks, chin and neck

Homeopathic cosmetic injection therapy is a natural cosmetic treatment, which helps rejuvenate the skin primarily in the face, neck and decollate. The treatment involves the use of fine injections and works by combining the effectiveness of acupuncture and homeopathy. These are great as a single treatment for events and special occasions but are ideal as a package for longer lasting results.  After an initial treatment series (standard protocol is 8-10 sessions), maintenance is recommended monthly or quarterly.  Individual results will vary but with regular maintenance results can last 3-5 years.

BENEFITS:

No side effects

Non-Toxic

Lasting Results

Naturally fill deeper lines and wrinkles

Improve elasticity for less sagging

Encourage fullness of the cheeks and lips

Increase hydration

Revitalize dull looking skin

Improve skin tone

 

For more information visit www.healingalternativesinc.com

Transforming Trauma with Flower Essences and Affirmations

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Transforming Trauma with Flower Essences and affirmations by Dina Saalisi
Sentire International Essence Magazine

Awakening the Divine Feminine

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Awakening the Divine Feminine by Dina Saalisi
Sentire International Essence Magazine

You may wonder what electromagnetic frequencies

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by Donna Joyce
Lift Your Spirit Healing

Some Foods for Summer

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by Kelly Williams

Eastern School of Acupuncture and Traditional Medicine

Examining Key Factors behind Questionable Additives in Your Food

Big Food, the FDA and the GRAS System: Examining Key Factors behind Questionable Additives in Your Food

by Chemical-Free-Life.org

 

The growing skepticism among U.S. consumers with regard to the safety of their food is grounded in a reality that is more disturbing and troubling than even the worst rumors on the Internet. Numerous studies and reports recently released by nonprofit consumer advocacy organizations and reporting agencies indicate that a disturbing number of new additives (“ingredients”) have been dumped into the food supply by the processed food industry using a loophole in the GRAS approval system—chemical ingredients that the FDA has not registered and not independently approved as safe.

For the past 15 years the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has looked the other way while Big Food corporations have used a giant loophole in the GRAS system (the food additive/ingredient approval system known as “Generally Recognized as Safe”) to dump numerous synthetic and industrialized food additives into the food supply sans the mandated safety testing to assure that the additives are safe for humans (including in utero, infants and children) and that they have no significant short-term adverse effects or potential for long-term health complications.

“Currently, companies may determine a substance is “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) without FDA’s approval or knowledge…

a few substances previously considered GRAS have later been banned; and concerns have been raised about the safety of other GRAS substances…

GAO recommends that FDA take steps to better ensure the safety of GRAS substances, including developing a strategy to require any company that conducts a GRAS determination to provide FDA with basic information about it.”

-U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO)

Over the past decade and a half and counting systemic problems with governmental agencies charged with the task of overseeing food safety have continued, and in some cases have worsened. In a classic case of the fox guarding the hen house, a recent study conducted by the Pew Research Center and published in a prestigious American Medical Association (AMA) journal reported that a large percentage of food additives have never been reviewed or safety tested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and in fact, the food manufacturers themselves have been the ones determining what additives are safe enough to inject in the public food supply.

“Because of the apparent frequency with which companies make [their own] GRAS safety determinations without telling the FDA…

We were able to identify 275 chemicals from 56 companies that appear to be marketed for use in food based on undisclosed GRAS safety determinations…

Companies found their chemicals safe for use in food despite potentially serious allergic reactions, interactions with common drugs, or proposed uses much greater than company-established safe doses.

~ Generally Recognized as Secret: Chemicals Added to Food in the United States.

National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Report

According to the Pew study and the National Resource Defense Council report, the majority of food additives (“ingredients”) added to processed foods through the GRAS system in recent years are unknown even to the FDA and have not been scientifically safety tested, the adverse effects of processed food overall have. This is particularly troubling given that a number of scientific studies have linked additive-laden processed foods with a range of health problems including obesity, diabetes, depression, lethargy, cognition problems, increased incidence of tumors, heart and kidney problems, autoimmune disorders, and endocrine/hormonal problems, to name a few.

As the Washington Post recently reported,

“A voluntary certification system [for additives] has nearly replaced one that relied on a more formal, time-consuming review — where the FDA, rather than companies, made the final determination on what is safe. The FDA’s new system allows manufacturers to certify, based on the company’s own research, that such ingredients are already Generally Recognized as Safe, or GRAS—which means food manufacturers no longer have to submit their research and raw data to the FDA. The result is that companies often bypass the FDA altogether. Under the rules, companies may make their own GRAS determination. Sharing it with the agency and getting it to sign off is voluntary.”

The Pew Charitable Trusts study was a comprehensive examination of the FDA’s GRAS system. Pew researchers conducted a three-year investigation into how food additives are regulated; Pew has called the GRAS system, “the loophole that swallowed the law.” In the grandest example of the fox guarding the hen house, according to the Pew study on food additives, if a food corporation wants to include a new additive (“ingredient”) in their processed food all they have to do is conduct their own study and publish safety data about it on their website (with the GRAS system they are not required to publish food safety data in a peer-reviewed scientific journal—the key difference between food “additives” and GRAS “ingredients” is the availability of safety information) and then pay a law firm or consulting firm to vet their own study and establish it as “generally recognized as safe”—and incredibly, they never even have to notify the FDA.

“Since 2000 almost all new chemicals have passed through the [GRAS] loophole rather than being subjected to the food additive petition process

established by Congress in 1958.”

~ Generally Recognized as Secret: Chemicals Added to Food in the United States.

 National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) Report

Legal Remedies Don’t Work with the FDA

A lawsuit was recently filed against the FDA by a food safety organization for negligent oversight and for permitting harmful additives to enter the food supply. The FDA tried to get the suit dismissed based on a lack of evidence of harm resulting from the unknown and unmonitored chemicals; ultimately all that happened was that the judge compelled them to finalize the rule for their GRAS procedures initially created in 1998.

     Whether this legal maneuver would amount to anything substantive to protect consumers was questionable from the onset; the FDA has been petitioned and sued numerous times over the past few decades over various food chemicals that have been found in scholarly scientific studies to be carcinogenic or otherwise a potentially serious health problem, to no avail. Between regulatory capture, a lack of legal authority and resources to set limits on the very companies they are charged with regulating, political posturing, and what appears to at least some independent scholarly researchers working with the FDA to be something bordering on scientific incompetence (more specifically, their complete resistance to modern scholarly scientific research methodology and an insistence to rigidly clinging to outdated, ineffective observational-based research, is pervasive in the agency), when it comes to requiring rigorous testing and oversight of food chemicals, the governmental body in charge of food safety is anything but trustworthy.

It’s as Easy as Additive-Laden Cherry Pie

When the big food corporations want to introduce a new chemical additive (“ingredient”) into their processed foods (something happening with unsettling frequency these days) they may use the most efficient route—the GRAS system. GRAS (or Generally Recognized as Safe), you will recall, has a loophole large enough for a semi-tractor trailer filled with Doritos to drive through. By capitalizing on the loophole even if their applications for new additives (“ingredients”) are turned down, they can simply withdraw the applications, pay their own lawyers or consultants to claim it is safe, and—sans any scientifically published safety testing or even notifying the FDA, dump it into the food anyhow.

Of the approximate 10,000 food additives approved for use in the market today, 3,000 have never been scientifically safety tested and approved by the FDA. As researchers at the Pew Charitable Trusts and others have publicly exposed this practice as Standard Operating Procedure for Big Food’s handling of new synthetic and industrialized food additives, we must assume the FDA is also aware it is going on. While FDA administrators may refuse to publicly acknowledge the stranglehold political cronyism has on their willingness and ability to act in the best interest of public health, privately a substantial number don’t. Nearly a quarter of FDA respondents of a 2012 survey reported they had worked for an industry they were later tasked with regulating, which highlights the significance of the “revolving door” problem. Additionally, a substantial number of respondents (55 percent) thought that FDA decisions were overly influenced by political interests or business interests. Just as important, over a third of the respondents reported firsthand experience of corporate political interference in their work within the past year. The bottom line for Big Food and Big Chemical corporations these days is that when you have friends with benefits working inside the FDA and longstanding, powerful friendships within the U.S. government, especially when you spend billions of dollars on lobbying efforts, getting a nod and wink for synthetic food additives that will increase your profits is apparently not that difficult.

“Robert McQuate, CEO of GRAS Associates, LLC, a food ingredient-consulting firm, says that about half of his clients do not voluntarily submit

their GRAS determinations to FDA for review. GRAS information submitted to FDA becomes publicly available, so the main reason his clients do not submit GRAS determinations is to protect their trade secrets.”-Kelly Damewood, Food Safety News

The FDA Response

Either an apparent victim of regulatory capture, under-funding, or antiquated policies and protocol (there is evidence that all are present) the FDA has ignored numerous requests and lawsuits brought forward by nonprofit organizations, scientists, attorneys, physicians and private citizens to ban various additives—some of them linked in scientific studies with cancer, a finding that compels the FDA to take action according to the Delaney Clause (the 1958 Food Additives Amendment (section 409) to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act/FFDCA). A recent lawsuit has been filed against the FDA by an organization of food safety advocates claiming the FDA has been negligent in not requiring proper scientific safety testing studies in order for food additives (“ingredients”) to be designated as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), thereby endangering the public by exposing them to potentially harmful food additives. While one might presume that the FDA is maintaining a “de minimis” argument, or that these additives pose negligible risk to consumers, in fact, they have no such evidence on numerous additives present in the food. This is because many of the food additives (“ingredients”) determined to be “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) in recent years have been determined as such by the food manufacturers themselves, far too frequently sans published, peer-reviewed, scientific safety testing studies. Given the voluntary nature of the requirement for food manufacturers to report their GRAS additives (“ingredients”) to the FDA, it should be no surprise that Pew’s research findings found that the FDA was unaware that many of these additives even existed in the food supply. In the meantime, a cadre of potentially harmful synthetic and industrialized chemicals remain in the food, leaving the onus on the consumer to self-educate and self-select which synthetic and industrialized food additives may be harmful to the health and well-being of themselves and their families.

Big Food’s Reaction to Growing Public Concern about Food Additives

As if untested mystery chemicals in the food supply is not bad enough, to add insult to injury, big food manufacturers have been overtly capitalizing on the public’s concern about food additives, deceptively labeling their food products as “natural” in the hopes that consumers will not investigate further or read the small print on the ingredients labels. Fortunately, according to a report by The Wall Street Journal, the cost of consumer lawsuits concerning this behavior has caused a number of food manufacturers to begin quietly removing the deceptive “natural” labels from their products, but some remain steadfast.

And New Chemical Additives Just Keep Coming

     According to a recent NRDC report, EGCG (Epigallocatechin-3-gallate) is one of the food additives that had its GRAS notice withdrawn and despite safety concerns, has been listed as an ingredient in some food products. Not to be confused with the low-level naturally-occurring version found in green tea (polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate), this industrialized version of EGCG can be found in cereal, nutrition and energy bars, soft drinks, sports and isotonic drinks, energy beverages, fruit and vegetable juices, meal replacement and soft candies. According to FDA records there are more than a dozen scientific studies linking this additive with dangerous health consequences, including one study that demonstrated it could induce toxicity in the liver, kidneys and intestine. Another study showed EGCG could produce defects in the brain and heart, and still another concluded it may contribute to infant leukemia.

“FDA’s approach to regulating nanotechnology allows engineered nanomaterials to enter the food supply as GRAS substances without FDA’s knowledge…

Because GRAS notification is voluntary and companies are not required to identify nanomaterials in their GRAS substances, FDA has no way of knowing the full extent to which engineered nanomaterials have entered the U.S. food supply as part of GRAS substances.”

~U.S. GAO 2010 Report:

FDA Should Strengthen Its Oversight of Food Ingredients Determined to Be Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)

The Solution to Questionable Chemicals of Concern in the U.S. Food Supply

Given the seriousness of the potential for serious adverse illnesses and chronic conditions linked with some of the most prevalent additives in our nation’s food supply there emerges a level of absurdity in what now passes for ‘food safety’ in the U.S. that can only be seen as a tragically amusing comedy of errors. Perhaps the FDA’s current GRAS (Generally Recommended as Safe) system whereby they permit Big Food to determine on their own which new chemical additives (officially called, “ingredients” when put through the GRAS system) are safe to enter the food supply sans any peer-reviewed published scientific safety testing, can be relabeled as the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) suggests as, ‘Generally Recognized as SECRET’, or alternatively as ‘GRAP’…’Generally Recognized as Profitable’. In this way, while there will still be no clear-cut method for determining the short- and long-term risks of ingesting it, at least the consumer will have transparency where motive is concerned.

“If people don’t know what it really is, it can’t be generally recognized.”

~Tom Neltner, JD., GRAS researcher for Natural Resources Defense Council

The bottom line: Consumers concerned about the potential adverse short-term and long-term health effects of synthetic and industrialized food chemicals are left on their own to self-educate and self-monitor what goes into their carts—and ultimately their bodies.

For more information visit Chemical-Free-Life.org

References:

Carlisle, P. & Frank, J. 2011. Recapturing regulatory capture: A paradigm for understanding the puzzling decisions of the Food Police, Session G4: Reinvestigating the 21st century corporation: Power, profits and regulatory capture, Third International Research Conference of the International Confederation of Associations for Pluralism in Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Carlisle, P. & Frank, J. 2011. A lack of warning labels for synthetic and industrialized food chemicals: Is regulatory capture of the FDA by the food and chemical industries leading to serious health safety issues for U.S. consumers? Third International Research Conference of the International Confederation of Associations for Pluralism in Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

Carlisle, P. & Frank, J. 2010. Why a little bit of obfuscation can go a long way: Complicit denial and swindle aversion in food products. Society for the Advancement of Behavioral Economics Conference, San Diego, CA.

Center for Food Safety (CFS). 2014. Citizens Regulatory Petition for declaratory and injunctive relief challenging the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s unlawful action of exempting substances that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) from regulation as food additives under a proposed rule for more than fifteen years, and for exempting substances from food additive regulations despite the fact that they may pose serious risks to human health and welfare. CFS wants the agency to return to the traditional process by which manufacturers formally petition FDA to approve a new food additive based on published studies, arguing that the GRAS process has allowed for potentially hazardous additives to enter the food supply.

Delaney Clause (Pub. L. 85-929, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1784) forbade the use in food of substances found to cause cancer in laboratory animals (“the Secretary of the Food and Drug Administration shall not approve for use in food any chemical additive found to induce cancer in man, or, after tests, found to induce cancer in animals”) is part of the 1958 Food Additives Amendment (section 409) to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), U.S. Food Title 21 USC 37 9e.

Damewood, K. Food Ingredients: Trade Secrets vs. Public Disclosure. Food Safety News, March 17, 2014.

Damewood, K. The GRAS Process: How Companies Legally Add Ingredients to Food. Food Safety News, January 30, 2014.

Esterl, M. Some food companies ditch ‘natural’ label: Amid lawsuits over the claim, more producers drop the word. Wall Street Journal, November 6, 2013.

Kindy, K. Food additives on the rise as FDA scrutiny wanes. Washington Post, August 17, 2014.

Kindy, K. Are secret ingredients in your food? Washington Post, April 7, 2014.

Neltner, T. & Maffini, M. 2014. Generally recognized as secret: Chemicals added to food in the United States. National Resource Defense Council (NRDC)Report.

Neltner, T., et al. 2013. Data gaps in toxicity testing of chemicals allowed in food in the United States, Reproductive Toxicology, 42: 85–94.

Neltner, T., et al. 2013. Conflicts of interest in approvals of additives to food determined to be Generally Recognized as Safe out of balance. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Internal Medicine, 173(22):2032-2036.

Neltner T., et al. 2011. Navigating the U.S. food additive regulatory program. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 10:342–368.

Union of Concerned Scientists. Voices of Scientists at the FDA: Measuring progress on scientific integrity. Union of Concerned Scientists Report, March 2012.

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). 2010 Food Safety Report: FDA should strengthen its oversight of food ingredients determined to be Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). GAO-10-246.

Lydia Zuraw, Settlement Reached in GRAS Lawsuit Against FDA, Food Safety News, October 21, 2014.

Lydia Zuraw, Food Industry Association Plans to Make GRAS More Transparent. Food Safety News, August 29, 2014.

Lydia Zuraw, Report Identifies Chemicals ‘Quietly Added’ to Food Under GRAS. Food Safety News, April 9, 2014.

Lydia Zuraw, Lawsuit Brought Against FDA Regarding Food Additives. Food Safety News, February 21, 2014.